Copyright © Ad Libitum Gitáregyüttes - 2012-2019
-A-

accidental*:
Sign indicating the modification of the pitch of the sound in sheet music (these are the cross, the be and the natural). See the details here: http://www.zeneiskolam.hu/zeneora/modosito-jelek-7-lecke.zeneiskola  (Use Google translator).

accord*: Pleasantly affected common sound of two or more (musical) sound.

adagio*: The item of a composition or a bigger composition like this one is with slow, intimate mood.

acoustic*:
1. phonetics. 2. Auditory relations of a place. 3. It’s the sound of something.

acoustical*:
Related with the sound.

acoustic  (profession)*:
The expert of the acoustics.

allegro*: 1.
Quickly, vividly (to be performed). 2. Composition written in active beat, or a detail like this.

allegretto*:
Less quickly (to be performed) than in case of allegro.

alto-clef*: The name of c-clef standing on third line.

andante*: 1.
With  moderate slowness (to be performed). 2. The part or movement of the composition with a mark like this.

andantino:
Walking.

arrangement*: The transliteration of one of the compositions onto more musical instruments, an orchestra.

artist*:
Musician playing artistically.

audio frequency*: 1.
The number of the sound vibrations in a second. 2. The wave band of the sound vibrations which can be heard by the human ear (cca. 16-between 20.000 Hz).


-B-

bar line*:
In sheet music: the vertical line delimiting the beats.

baroque:
It is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music. The style started around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe. (see the detailed information here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baroque)

bass-clef*: F-clef A written sign onto the fourth line, which is a reversed C letter with a colon after it; indicates that F is lying on the line between the two dots in the sheet music.

be*: A directing sign for let one of the sounds be deeper with a halftone.


-C-

cadence*:
Regular alternation of the long and short or stressed and unemphatic sounds, or of the syllables in a composition or in a poem.

church modes*: Heptatonic keys going back onto the ancient Greek scales in their origin.

C-clef: See it at the “alto-clef*” and the tenor-clef* catchwords.

classicism in music*: The musical equivalent of the aesthetic tendency characterized it with the restraint of the expression, accuracy and balance. The Versailles one and the Vienna school's music the 18th century's second party.

chamber music*: 1.
A composition written for little orchestra, generally onto bow ones, or for some musical instruments in which independent phrase is played by the instrument(s). 2. Performance of this kind of composition.

chamber singer*:
A honoured distinguished singer with this title (usually on a German language area).

chord*: I.
Three or the concurrent sound of a sound with more different altitudes, concerned the band of the sounds beginning to sound so; chord.

chord*: II.1.
In one of the sound systems simultaneously sounding two ore more musical sound (duet-, triad, quartet chord). 2. The keynote which is sounding together with its overtones.

chromatic *:
Going in halftone value.

chromatic scale, scale*:
Tempered scale with halftone intervals, a scale which is consisting a 12 degrees scale.

chromatic instrument*:
It is a musical instrument on which it is possible to sound the all of the 12 halftone of an octave.

classicism:
It is a specific genre of philosophy, expressing itself in literature, architecture, art, and music, which has Ancient Greek and Roman sources and an emphasis on society. It was particularly expressed in the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason. (more details see here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classicism )

clef*: Sounds signal originated from letters standing on the forefront of the system of lines. which nominates the accurate pitch of the sounds. There are three main types of it: c-clef, bass clef, treble clef.

composition*: 1.
Musical artwork. 2. A sheet music containing like this.

concert*:
Public performance for presenting compositions.

concert room*:
Smaller (musical) auditorium.

consonance*:
Consonance of the sounds. (ex. The consonance of the interval).

CZÖVEK Erna Ms, Music Teacher: (Orsova, 13. December 1899 - Budapest, 30 March 1983).
She has been made her studies between the year of 1916-1924 in the “Fővárosi Felsőbb Zeneiskola” (Metropolitan High Music School) in Budapest.
Between 1920 and 1947 she worked as a Piano Teacher of the Metropolitan Music Course;
From 1947 until 1950 she is a Musical Lecturer in the Ministry of Religion and Public Education, then in the Cultural Educational Ministry;
Between 1950 and 1952 she is a Piano and Solfege Teacher in the Bartók Béla Zenei Szakiskola (Bela Bartok Musical Training College) in Budapest;
From 1956 until 1962 she is the Director of the Fővárosi Zeneiskolai Szervezet (Metropolitan Music School Organization).
After 1945 she is one of her front-line fighters of the mass music upbringing, the music with a new type education. She made a lot of work for the modernisation of the Hungarian music education. She prepared the nationalisation of the rural music school network.
Her more important works: Direction the teaching of the piano alphabet (1948, Budapest); Guide to the teaching of the notebook of the Piano School I. (piano alphabet) (1957, Budapest); Guide to the 1. volume of the Piano School (1966, Budapest).
source: Magyar Életrajzi Lexikon 1000-1990.
http://mek.oszk.hu/00300/00355/html/ABC02469/03002.htm
She moved on Budakeszi city in 1961, and until 1968 she lived in the house under the address of Petőfi Sándor utca 15.
The Budakeszi Zeneiskola (Budakeszi Music Scool) adopted the illustrious music teacher's name in 1996.


-D-

diatonic*:
A heptatonic sound system like that, the members of which are clear of each other quint in a distance can be depicted; the basis of the European music with a major minor key.


-E-

exemption sign*: The sign of the dissolution of a modified note. See the details here: http://www.zeneiskolam.hu/zeneora/modosito-jelek-7-lecke.zeneiskola (use Google translator).


-F-

F-clef*: (bass clef) A sign is written onto the fourth line, a reversed C letter, after it colon; indicates that F note is lying on the line between the two dots in the sheet music.


-G-

guitar*:
A stringed instrument with a flat body and with 6 or 12 pieces of finger plucked strings; the sound is intensified electrically on the electric guitar.

guitar (the parts of it): The main parts of the guitar: Head, neck and body. On the head can be found the tuning keys, the nut is between the head and the neck. The frets and the fingerboard can be found in the neck. The soundboard, the soundhole and the bridge are the parts of the body. The strings tighten between the bridge and the tuning keys, the guitar is tunable by turning the tuning keys. See the more detailed description here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_guitar

G-clef*: The key is marking  the one-line g key on its place; treble clef.


-H-

halftone*:
A note, which is equal with the half of the whole tone, or with two quarter, or with four quaver notes.

harmony*: 1.
Chord. 2. The group of sound with more different altitudes, their coalescing sound; consonance.

harmony*: The part of the musical theory dealing with the chords. The today's harmony laying the foundations, the recogniser of the functions of the chords J. Ph. Rameau was. The basis of the harmony was the third until the XIX. century's end. The modern music a use harmonies being built of second and quart intervals.


-I-

impressionist (in music)*:
It is an artist observing impressionism.

impressionism*:
A painting tendency, with the essence of watch the sudden impressions, the variability of the phenomena, and the perpetuation of this in paintings.

instrumental music*:
Music performed on musical instruments.

international pitch*: The “a” sound which has 440 frequencies in a second (440 Hz), it’s the basis of the uniform tuning.

interval*: The relation of two simultaneously or after each other sounded sound pitch, the distance from each other.


-J-

-K-

key*:
The specific character, and feature of the pitch of one of the scales.

key signature*: Indicated modifier sign(es) on the forefront of a section of composition.


-L-

largo*: 1.
(As tempo mark:) slowly, broadly. 2. The detail of composition with pace like this.

lento*:
(As tempo mark:) slowly.


-M-

major*: 1.
Heptatonic (scale), for which there is halftone distance between the 3rd and 4th, and between the 7th and 8th sound. 2. Constructed on the base of scale like this. 3. Key like this one (for example D-major).

melody*: 1.
It’s the rhythmical succession of musical sounds with variable altitudes formed into a unit. 2. The music of the musicalised text.

minor*: 1.
Heptatonic (scale), in which there is halftone distance bitween the 2nd and the 3rd furthermore the 5th and the 6th sound. 2. Scale like this. 3. The keynote like this (ex. H minor).

moderato*: 1.
In  moderate pace. 2. The part of omposition with a mark like this.

motive *:
Repetitive closed musical expression.

movement*:
Relatively independent part forming a closed unit of a composition (ex. The sonata consists four items).

music album*:
Volume is implying shorter compositions of more authors.

musical composition*: 1.
Musical item. 2. Piece of music

music-case *:
The sheet music holder (rack) for playing music.

music-paper*:
Row five line sheet onto fixing compositions with notes.

music stand *:
Music-case rack.

mute*:
It’s a device which is reducing the volume of the tone of a musical instrument.


-N-

note*:
The note is his round part.

négyeshangzat*:
Cord is consisting of four different sounds in the major-minor sound system.

note*:
Punctuation mark for fixing a musical sound pitch and its period.


-O-

octave *: 1.
The eighth sound is counted from one of the keynotes in the heptatonic scale. 2. Interval between the keynote and its octave. 3. Common sound of two sounds with a relation like this one.

orchestra*:
Band performing instrumental music with common leadership.

overtone*:
It is a high pitch sounding but separate inaudible one arising together with a keynote.


-P-

partial tone*:
It is a keynote forming a complex sound or an overtone. The tone depends on the number of the partial tones and their volumes.

pentatonic*:
Those scales together, that a sound degree with only five different altitudes is used inside the octave; pentatonic sound system, pentatonality. There is the most widespread from more of its types the quart pentatonality from the without the halftone ones-group. The ancient scale of the Hungarian folk music use a composition like this.

phrase*: 1. (In a composition written to a band) one of the melodies sound on the same singing voice or on the same musical instruments. 2. A phrase singing or playing person(s’ band). 3. Musical thought, there are longer and shorter independent parts in its expression.

piece of music*: Shorter instrumental composition.

pitch*: The impression made by the sounds with a different frequency, which depends on the volume, and the hangszínképtől too. The sound with a bigger frequency is heard for taller one, for the lower deeper one.

presto*: Swiftly, quickly (to be performed).


-Q-

quint*: 1.
The fifth sound from the keynote to upwards in the heptatonic scale. 2. The interval between the keynote and this sound or their common sound.

quint changer*:
A kind of (melody) in which the second part of it is repeated a quint interval deeper then the first part was performed.


-R-

renaissance:
The Renaissance was a European cultural movement spanning the 14th to the 17th century. (see the detailed information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance)

rest*:  1. The interruption of the soundprocess is belonging to the rhythm of the music or the poem. 2. The sign of a musical pause being equal to the value of one of the notes.

resonance box*: The hollow part or box  of some musical instruments for intensifying the sounds.

rhythm*: 1.  The theory of the rhythm. 2. A the order of a rhythm, its system in one of the artistic creations.

romanticism (or the Romantic Era or the "Romantic Period"): was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe, and gained strength in reaction to the Industrial Revolution. In part, it was a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education and natural history. (source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism)


-S-

scale*:
The series of musical sounds which are following each other in a rising or in a descending direction belonging to one of the keys in a particular distance. The western music is distinguishes diatonic (major scale, minor-scale) and chromatic scales (with twelve degrees, tempered halftones).

scale*: Musical scale (ex. C-major scale).

school of music*: Training college giving practical and theoretical musical notion.

second*: 1. One of the sounds (upwards) its adjacent sound in the heptatonic scale. 2. The interval of  these sounds or their common sound. Little or major second: one or two halftones distance interval. 3. The phrase of the second violin in a stringed instrument band.

septola: It is consisting seven sounds, which it is necessary to sound under the time of four or six sounds with a value just like that. Its nomination an arc or a beam, with a little 7 number in it. (source: http://www.zenci.hu/szocikk/szeptola) (Use Google translator)

sharp sign*: Accidental indicating lifting up a half with a sound for a sound (#). See it in detail here: http://www.zeneiskolam.hu/zeneora/modosito-jelek-7-lecke.zeneiskola

sheet music *: 1. Notation. 2. The form of a composition is fixed by this one. 3. A notebook or a sheet is containing written notes.

solo musical instrument*: A piece of music is composed to a solo musical instrument and it is performed on this one.

sonata ("to sound"): In music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung. The term, being vague, naturally evolved through the history of music, designating a variety of forms prior to the Classical era. The term took on increasing importance in the Classical period, and by the early 19th century the word came to represent a principle of composing large scale works. It was applied to most instrumental genres and regarded alongside the fugue as one of two fundamental methods of organizing, interpreting and analyzing concert music. Though the musical style of sonatas has changed since the Classical Era, most 20th- and 21st- century sonatas still maintain the same structure.
(source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonata)

sonata form*: The construction of the musical classicism with highest order, which has three or two parts.

sonatina*: Sonata-like but shorter, plain composition.

sound distance*: The differences of pitch of the whole tones between two adjacent notes of the scale.

sound engineer*: A special acoustic qualification specialist who is responsible for the quality of sound.

sound hole*: The slot of a resonance box.

sound system*: The group of the musical sounds in which the pitch relation defined between the certain sounds (pentatonality, diatonality, chromaticism).

sound value*: Note value.


-T-

tablature (or tabulature, or tab for short):
It’s a form of musical notation indicating instrument fingering rather than musical pitches.Tablature is common for fretted stringed instruments such as the lute, vihuela, or guitar, as well as many free reed aerophones such as the harmonica. Tablature was common during the Renaissance and Baroque eras, and is commonly used in notating rock, pop, folk, ragtime, bluegrass, and blues music. (source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tablature)

temperating*: (Interval, tuning, scale) is modified by dividing the clear octave into 12 equal halftone.

tenor clef*: A C-clef which is used for the subscription of pitces of the cello, the bassoon and the trombone, and in former times was used for the subscription of tenor vocal scores.

third*: 1. A third sound counted from of one of the sounds. 2. Interval between this two sounds or their common sound.

time signature*: On the front of a composition: mark given with a fraction usually, which shows it, what the measure is the base unit and how many belong to a beat (ex. 4/4, 6/8).

tone*: 1. A vibration which can be absorbed with the hearing organs; The sensation to which rise was given by it. 2. Musical sound, or the unit of the scale like this.

tone*: vocal or musical sound of a specific quality; especially : musical sound with respect to timbre and manner of expression

tonic*: 1. The deepest sound on which one of the scales or a chord are founded. 2. The first sound of a scale.

transpose*: (Composition) into an other key transfers.

treble-clef*: The one-line one g key marking his place; G key.

triad*: Chord consisting a keynote, together with the third of this and the quint of this.

triplet*: Three sounds with an equal time span beginning to sound within two time units (ex. quarter, quaver).

tune*: Adjust a musical instrument in such a way to the concert pitch that it is sounds in a suitable pitch and cleanness sounds.

tuning fork*: A constant (440 Hz) musical pitch sounding tool, which is an U shaped steel device.


-U-

-V-

vivace*: 1.
vividly, in an active beat (to be performed). 2. Composition (passage) is written in beat like this.

volume*:
The physical characteristic of the sound, which is measurable by sound intensity, or by sound pressure.


-Z-
































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The source of marked (*) dictionary entries: Magyar Larousse Enciklopédia, Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest, 1992.